Print Resource

Resource Description

In Year 7 and 8 students investigate and select from a range of technologies − materials, systems, components, tools and equipment. They consider the ways characteristics and properties of technologies can be combined to design and produce sustainable solutions to problems for individuals and the community, considering society and ethics, and economic, environmental and social sustainability factors. Students use creativity, innovation and enterprise skills with increasing independence and collaboration.
This unit of study will investigate the nutritional benefits of eating Eggs, a fact reported widely in literature. It will provide students with the opportunity to investigate a nutrition challenge and use design and technology to produce an innovative solution, using eggs as a main component.
Students will create designed solutions, based on an evaluation of needs or opportunities, for a nutritional challenge. They develop criteria for success, including sustainability considerations, and use these to judge the suitability of their ideas and designed solutions and processes. They create and adapt design ideas, make considered decisions and communicate to different audiences using appropriate technical terms and a range of technologies and graphical representation techniques. Students apply project management skills to document and use project plans to manage production processes. They independently and safely produce effective designed solutions for the intended purpose. To do this, students will analyse how characteristics and properties of food determine preparation techniques and presentation when designing solutions for healthy eating (ACTDEK033) by planning and making quality, safe and nutritious food items, using a range of food preparation tools, equipment and techniques (elaboration).
Students will select and justify choices of materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to effectively and safely make designed solutions (ACTDEP037) by identifying and managing risks in the development of various projects, working safely, responsibly, cooperatively and ethically on design projects, assessing uncertainty and risk in relation to long-term health and environmental impacts, developing technical production skills and safe working practices with independence to produce quality solutions designed for sustainability and practising techniques to improve expertise (elaborations).

back to top

Rationale

This resource material aims to help teachers and students in secondary schools investigate and understand more about primary industries in Australia.
The objectives of the educational resources are to:

  • Support Primary Industries Education Foundation Australia and its members in expanding awareness about primary industries in Australia by engaging and informing teachers and students about the role and importance of primary industries in the Australian economy, environment and wider community.
  • Provide resources, which help build leadership skills amongst teachers and students in communicating about Food Specialisations and primary industries in Australia.
  • Develop educational resources that can be used across Australia to provide encouragement, information and practical teaching advice that will support efforts to teach about Food Specialisations and the primary industries sector.
  • Demonstrate to students that everyone can consider careers in primary industries and along the supply chain of Food Specialisation products.
  • Develop engaging learning programs using an inquiry process aligned with the Australian Curriculum.
  • Develop in school communities, an integrated primary industries education program that emphasises the relationship between food and fibre industries, individuals, communities, the environment and our economy.

These educational resources are an effort to provide practical support to teachers and students learning about Food Specialisations and primary industries in schools.

back to top

About the approach

Several key principles underpin the theoretical and practical application to this unit. Students are guided to develop knowledge and understanding of:

  • factors that influence the design of products, services and environments to meet present and future needs, and
  • the contribution of design and technology innovations and enterprise to society.

Students are guided to develop process and production skills by:

  • investigating and defining needs or opportunities
  • generating, designing and communicating ideas for solutions
  • Producing and implementing solutions
  • Evaluating to judge success, and
  • Collaborating and managing the project.

back to top

Curriculum strands

Technologies: Knowledge and Understanding

Analyse how characteristics and properties of food determine preparation techniques and presentation when designing solutions for healthy eating (ACTDEK033)

Skills and Processes

Select and justify choices of materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to effectively and safely make designed solutions (ACTDEP037)

Other capabilities and priorities

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and communication technology capability
  • Critical and creative thinking
  • Personal and social capability
  • Ethical understanding
  • Intercultural understanding.
back to top

Using the unit

This unit can be used in a number of ways. It will be of most benefit to teachers who wish to implement the sustained sequence of activities that follow the learning experiences around the content descriptors in Year 7 Technologies in the Australian Curriculum.

You may add to or complement the suggested activities with ideas of your own activities or investigations.

The resources have been designed as a hyperlinked unit. This is to provide you with a digital format for your class’s use on a website or wiki or provide them on your interactive whiteboard.

We encourage you to explore ways in which the content can be adjusted to the context in which you are working.

Resource sheets are provided for some activities. Most are for photocopying and distribution to students.

The resource sheets are designed to assist teachers to facilitate learning without having to access a range of other resources.

back to top

Resourcing the unit

The resources suggested are on the whole, general rather than specific. Schools and the contexts in which they exist vary widely as does the availability of some resources – particularly in remote areas. There is a strong emphasis in the unit on gathering information and data; research and observations also feature strongly as these methods develop important skills and ensure that the exploration of the topics are grounded in a relevant context.

Some YouTube and online videos in addition to Internet based resources are suggested in the unit. You will need to investigate what is available in your school.

back to top

Industry Contacts

Australian Eggs https://www.australianeggs.org.au/

back to top

Assessment

The unit provides an opportunity for a range of skills and understandings to be observed.

Students have the option to conduct a Project based Assessment

Length of Unit

5 - 8 lessons depending on whether practical production is included on campus.

back to top

Learning Sequence

Learning Experience

Activities

Summary

1
1x60min lesson

 

Students will:
- respond to a quick class survey on egg consumption
- examine the Assessment Project to be worked on progressively
- discuss terminology used in Design Technologies
- complete the Terminology Word puzzle

Communication using appropriate technical terms related to Design Technologies

2
1x60min lesson

 

Students will:
- investigate the supply chain for Eggs to gain understanding of how the features of technologies (ethical and sustainable factors) influence decisions made by consumers

Features of technologies impact on designed solutions and influence design decisions

3
1x60min lesson

 

Students will:

  • examine in detail the nutritional value of eggs
  • identify nutrition-poor consumer markets e.g. children, elderly, health and environmental conscious, health and fitness conscious, time poor. Could eggs be the solution?
  • evaluate the opportunity for food specialisation using eggs to promote healthy eating
  • research recipes that can be produced using eggs
  • - Breakfast
    - Lunch
    - Dinner
    - Snacks

  • identify preparation techniques in these recipes.
  • evaluate suitability of items for a specific consumer market; e.g. adolescent, elderly, health conscious.

Factors that influence the design of products, services and environments to meet present and future needs
Evaluation of needs or opportunities for food specialisation

4
1x60min lesson

 

Students will:

  • develop an understanding of Food safety when using eggs.
  • revise WHS guidelines when working in a food production environment by identifying risks; e.g. knife handling, electricity, heat and water.
  • discuss guidelines for working responsibly, co-operatively and ethically on design projects.
  • work in a small group to choose a product to produce
    – from the recipes selected in the previous lesson.
  • Use a Strengths and Weaknesses table to assess uncertainty and risk in relation to long-term health of consuming this recipe on a regular basis.

Identifying and managing risks in the development of various projects, for example working safely, responsibly, cooperatively and ethically on design projects, assessing uncertainty and risk in relation to long-term health and environmental impacts production of effective designed solutions for the intended purpose independently and safely

5
1x60min lesson

Students will:

  • investigate the guiding question ‘Does the Nutritional Value of Eggs Depend on the Way You Cook Them?’
  • examine the functional properties of eggs in food preparation and processing
  • analyse how these characteristics impact on preparation and presentation techniques.

Examining the relationship between food preparation techniques and the impact on nutrient value

6
1x60min lesson

 

Students will:

  • work in a small group to produce one of their chosen recipes
  • identify the impact of the food preparation technique
  • evaluate the sensory properties of the product
  • suggest improvements.

Practising techniques to improve expertise, for example handling animals, cutting and joining materials

7
2x60min lesson
Project Design and produce solution/s using Eggs to meet the needs of a specific consumer group/ nutritional issue; e.g. adolescents

 

Students will:

  • complete the Design project by
    - explaining factors that influence the design of products
    - explaining how the features of technologies impact on designed solutions
    - evaluating the opportunities for food specialisation, using eggs as a solution for the problem
    - investigating product needs and developing a Criteria for success table
    - generating designs for products
    - collaborating and managing the production environment to develop a solution
    - producing a healthy lunch snack using eggs
  • evaluating the process and product using the Criteria for success.

  • Application of project management skills, including documentation and use of project plans, to manage production processes - communication to different audiences using:
    - appropriate technical terms
    - a range of technologies and graphical representation techniques
  • development of criteria for success, including sustainability considerations
  • creation and adaptation of design ideas, making considered decisions
  • use of developed criteria for success (including sustainability considerations) to judge the suitability of:
    - their ideas
    - designed solutions and processes

back to top

Teacher Background Information

While often associated with developing countries, food insecurity is also prevalent in certain groups within wealthy countries like Australia. The reasons why people experience food insecurity include: a lack of resources; lack of access to nutritious food at affordable prices, lack of access to food due to geographical isolation; and lack of motivation or knowledge about a nutritious diet. Food insecurity is a concern as it can impact negatively upon outcomes for children in the short and long-term - including children's academic ability and health issues including obesity, diabetes and heart disease. https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/food-insecurity-australia-what-it-who-experiences-it
It is widely reported in the media that for many young people the ability to acquire nutritionally adequate and safe foods is limited by lack of knowledge, production skills and confidence. Professor Marj Moodie from Deakin University states that with poor diet a major cause of disease world-wide, it is essential that ways are found to make healthy eating at home cheap, quick and easy.
Twenty years ago, eggs were out of favour health-wise and we were told to eat no more than two a week. Now several decades of research have seen the official line on eggs shift considerably. Experts, including those at the National Heart Foundation, say eggs are so packed with goodness, many of us would benefit from eating more. But public perceptions haven't caught up.
Possibly the greatest area of confusion surrounding eggs relates to the cholesterol they contain. Once it was thought eating cholesterol in foods led to raised levels of cholesterol in your blood – or more particularly the 'bad' cholesterol that clogs your arteries and increases your risk of heart attacks. It's been known for some time now that, for most people, eating cholesterol actually has little effect on blood cholesterol, says the National Heart Foundation's senior nutrition manager Barbara Eden. What's far more likely to send your bad blood cholesterol shooting up is eating saturated fat or trans-fat (a fat found in many deep-fried and commercially baked products). There is little saturated fat and no trans-fat in eggs. In contrast, eggs contain good amounts of omega-3 fats that have been proven to benefit heart health in multiple ways.
Dietitians Association of Australia states that eggs are an economical and nutrient rich food with good quality protein along with other vitamins and minerals. Two eggs have around the same number of kilojoules as a tub of yoghurt or a small tin of salmon. The Australian Dietary Guidelines suggests enjoying up to 7 eggs per week as a part of a healthy, balanced diet. Eggs are the same as other protein rich foods, and they are great as a quick nutritious meal or snack. https://daa.asn.au/smart-eating-for-you/smart-eating-fast-facts/food-and-food-products/can-i-eat-eggs-if-i-want-to-be-healthy/
The National Heart Foundation revised its position on eggs in 2009. It now says "all Australians who follow a healthy balanced diet low in saturated fat can eat up to six eggs each week without increasing their risk of heart disease." It specifically states that those with diabetes or metabolic syndrome (a cluster of conditions that together increase your risk of heart disease, stroke or diabetes) are included in this advice.
The figure of six eggs a week was chosen because the research showed no significant increase in heart disease risk up to that number. But at higher levels of consumption, there did seem to be an association with heart disease. It's advice that's in line with that given by several other major health organisations overseas, including the World Health Organisation. http://www.abc.net.au/health/thepulse/stories/2011/07/13/3266764.htm
It is important however to remember that no one food or nutrient is the key to a heart-healthy diet. These diets are based on combinations of foods, chosen regularly, over time. This means what you eat with your eggs is important, eggs are best eaten with vegetables such as spinach, mushroom, tomato and avocado with wholegrain bread rather than bacon and white bread. https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/healthy-eating/food-and-nutrition/protein-foods/eggs

Key Summary

Point 1
Reasons for food insecurity include: a lack of resources; lack of access to nutritious food at affordable prices, lack of access to food due to geographical isolation; and lack of motivation or knowledge about a nutritious diet.

Point 2
Food insecurity is a concern as it can impact negatively upon outcomes for children in the short and long-term - including children's academic ability and health issues including obesity, diabetes and heart disease

Point 3
It is widely reported in the media that for many young people the ability to acquire nutritionally adequate and safe foods is limited by lack of knowledge, production skills and confidence; it is essential that ways are found to make healthy eating at home cheap, quick and easy.

Point 4
Experts, including those at the National Heart Foundation, say eggs are so packed with goodness, many of us would benefit from eating more. There is little saturated fat and no trans-fat in eggs; eggs contain good amounts of omega-3 fats that have been proven to benefit heart health in multiple ways.

Point 5
Eggs are an economical and nutrient rich food with good quality protein along with other vitamins and minerals. Healthy diets are based on combinations of foods, chosen regularly, over time; eggs are best eaten with vegetables such as spinach, mushroom, tomato and avocado with wholegrain bread rather than bacon and white bread.

REFERENCES

https://daa.asn.au/smart-eating-for-you/smart-eating-fast-facts/food-and-food-products/can-i-eat-eggs-if-i-want-to-be-healthy/
http://www.abc.net.au/health/thepulse/stories/2011/07/13/3266764.htm
https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/healthy-eating/food-and-nutrition/protein-foods/eggs
https://www.australianeggs.org.au/learn-about-egg-farming/
https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/food-insecurity-australia-what-it-who-experiences-it
http://www.deakin.edu.au/about-deakin/media-releases/articles/back-to-basics-approach-to-home-cooking-the-key-to-turning-around-australias-poor-eating-habits
https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/obesity-in-children-causes

back to top

Learning Experience 1

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will allow students to gain an understanding of the consumer consumption of eggs, gain knowledge related to learning in Design and Technologies and gain an overview of the Assessment project to be undertaken in this unit.
N.B: The Assessment project does not have to be incorporated in this unit. The Learning Experiences may be used without formal assessment.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • revisit the concept of healthy eating
  • contribute to a survey on consumption of eggs and discuss the results
  • recap on the goals of the learning area of Design and Technologies
  • read the assessment task to understand the goals for this unit of work
  • revise the terminology used in Design and Technologies.

Teacher Background

The behavioural patterns of adolescents (ages 10 to 17) established during this developmental period helps determine young people’s current health status and their risk for developing chronic diseases during adulthood. Although adolescence is generally a healthy time of life, some important health and social problems, such as nutrition and weight conditions and corresponding mental health, either start or peak during these years.
https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Adolescent-Health

The Healthy Eating Pyramid reminds Australians to limit our intake of salt and added sugar. This means avoiding packaged foods and drinks that have salt or added sugar in the ingredients and encouraging the consumption of unprocessed foods. The average Australian already consumes too much salt and added sugar, and this is linked to increased risk of diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Cooking your own meals and choosing whole foods or minimally-processed foods will help to limit how much salt and added sugar we consume.
http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/resource/healthy-eating-pyramid

A GOOD FOOD FOR LIFE
Healthy eating is good idea regardless of how old you are and what else you do. It helps reduce the risk of lifestyle-related health conditions and boosts energy levels, helping you get the most out of each day. To meet your daily nutrient requirements, it’s important to include a variety of foods from the key food groups. You should also be active, take time out to enjoy life and make sure you get enough sleep.

While diet trends come and go, the basics of healthy eating don’t. And unlike the latest food fads, eggs are relatively inexpensive – making them a valuable inclusion in a healthy, well-balanced diet. Eggs are also a convenient way for pregnant women, athletes, the elderly, and others with restricted diets or increased nutrient requirements to top up their intake. The amounts needed vary depending on age and gender, but the most common recommendation is two and half serves daily; two large eggs (120g) is equal to one serve. Eggs are nutritious, cost-effective and delicious.

Eggs are an easy, low cost, protein and nutrient rich meal for breakfast, lunch or dinner to help Australians achieve a quality diet. Eggs are often referred to as nature’s multivitamin – they’re one of the healthiest foods you can eat, making them an excellent choice when it comes to weight management. They’re nutrient dense, a great source of high quality protein, and a serve of two eggs is only about 580 kilojoules – roughly the same as two red apples. https://www.australianeggs.org.au/nutrition/

Design and Technologies
Learning in Design and Technologies builds on concepts, skills and processes developed in earlier years, and teachers will revisit, strengthen and extend these as needed.

By the end of Year 8 students will have had the opportunity to create designed solutions at least once in the following four technologies contexts: Engineering principles and systems, Food and fibre production, Food specialisations and Materials and technologies specialisations. Students should have opportunities to design and produce products, services and environments.
In Year 7 and 8 students investigate and select from a range of technologies — materials, systems, components, tools and equipment. They consider the ways characteristics and properties of technologies can be combined to design and produce sustainable designed solutions to problems for individuals and the community, considering society and ethics, and economic, environmental and social sustainability factors. Students use creativity, innovation and enterprise skills with increasing independence and collaboration.
Students respond to feedback from others and evaluate design processes used and designed solutions for preferred futures. They investigate design and technology professions and the contributions that each makes to society locally, regionally and globally through creativity, innovation and enterprise. Students evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of design ideas and technologies.
Using a range of technologies including a variety of graphical representation techniques to communicate, students generate and clarify ideas through sketching, modelling, perspective and orthogonal drawings. They use a range of symbols and technical terms in a range of contexts to produce patterns, annotated concept sketches and drawings, using scale, pictorial and aerial views to draw environments.
With greater autonomy, students identify the sequences and steps involved in design tasks. They develop plans to manage design tasks, including safe and responsible use of materials and tools, and apply management plans to successfully complete design tasks. Students establish safety procedures that minimise risk and manage a project with safety and efficiency in mind when making designed solutions.

Australian Curriculum Design and Technologies Year 7-8 Knoweldge and Understanding Link

Videos
Design and Technologies overview (7min14) Teaching and Learning in South Australia

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=design+and+technologies+curriculum&&view=detail&mid=8F1AACEDE7C38F4DD92E8F1AACEDE7C38F4DD92E&&FORM=VRDGAR
Design and Technologies – an introduction ACARA 6mins13 https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=design+and+technologies+curriculum&&view=detail&mid=84FA82F7E6B93587440984FA82F7E6B935874409&&FORM=VRDGAR

Equipment

LE 1 - Worksheet 1 LE 1 - Worksheet 2 LE 1 - Worksheet 2 Ans Assessment Task Criteria for success












Lesson Steps

  1. Worksheet 1 - Students will read the introduction to the Survey worksheet. As a class, brainstorm the reasons for the importance of healthy eating.
  2. Students respond to the survey – using the worksheet or you may prefer to set up on survey monkey or Plickers or PollEverywhere.
  3. Display the survey questions, using data projector. Against each question, record class results with the students to determine the current trend for consumer consumption of eggs – frequency, type, how produced, reasons for and against egg consumption. Discuss these results. Record and discuss class results with the students to determine the current trend for consumer consumption of eggs – frequency, type, how produced, reasons for and against egg consumption. In the discussion gain an understanding from the students what they understand about the supply chain for Eggs, nutrition of Eggs and emerging health problem areas.
  4. Watch selected parts of the video to recap on the area of Design and Technologies Remind students that Learning in Design and Technologies builds on concepts, skills and processes developed in earlier years, and these will be revisited, strengthened and extended in this unit of work. Design and Technologies overview (7min14) Teaching and Learning in South Australia
    https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=design+and+technologies+curriculum&&view=detail&mid=8F1AACEDE7C38F4DD92E8F1AACEDE7C38F4DD92E&&FORM=VRDGAR
  5. Read and discuss the Assessment Project. Criteria for success are also provided.
  6. Worksheet 2 – Students will revise the terminology used in Design and Technologies by completing the Terminology Word puzzle to revisit and strengthen vocabulary usage and understanding.

Supporting Resources

Human continuum http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104014/chapters/Human-Continuum.aspx

Nutrition Australia http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/resource/healthy-eating-pyramid

Plickers https://www.plickers.com/

Survey Monkey https://www.surveymonkey.com/

 
back to top

Learning Experience 2

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will allow students to gain knowledge of the factors that influence the design of products, services and environments to meet present and future needs and to understand how the features of technologies - ethical and sustainable – impact on designed solutions and influence design decisions.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • investigate the supply chain for eggs to explain how the features of technologies - ethical and sustainable factors – may impact on the design a healthy lunch snack for an individual.
  • explain the factors (nutrition, aesthetics, cost, time, ingredients, equipment and tools, techniques and processes), that influence the design of products when creating a healthy lunch snack to meet the needs of an individual

Teacher Background

All eggs sold in Australia come from Australian farms, there is no import of shell eggs and very little export of Australian egg products – we are a domestic shell egg market. Eggs from three different production systems: cage, barn and free range all with different challenges and benefits.
FARMING SYSTEMS
There are three egg farming systems: cage, free range and barn. All have different benefits, but all are focused on food safety and healthy hens.

FREE RANGE
Free Range farms give hens freedom to move around and forage outdoors during the day, and the security and comfort of being housed in barns at night.
Video - Meet Australian free range egg farmer, Rachel Wilson.
Eggs labelled as ‘organic’ are free range eggs produced using organic methods. Organic farming does not involve the use of artificial chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers, or genetically modified organisms. Chickens are raised on organic feed. Handout Eggsplainer - cracking the new free range rules

BARN
Barn farming systems allow hens freedom to move around in large climate-controlled barns, which means they have more space, but are not exposed to the elements and outside threats and diseases.
Video - Meet Australian barn egg farmer, Rob Peffer.

CAGE
Cage systems allow farmers to carefully control the hen’s environment, so temperature, feed and water are all optimised for the comfort and health of the bird. Hens are also protected from predators and disease.
Video - Meet Australian cage egg farmer, Gill Burke.

ORGANIC
Eggs produced using organic methods. Organic farming does not involve the use of artificial chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers, or genetically modified organisms. Chickens are raised on organic feed.

Appendix of terms
Cage eggs: Eggs produced by chickens held in indoor cages.
Free-range eggs: Eggs produced by birds able to roam, including outdoors, over a greater area.
Barn-laid eggs: Eggs produced by chickens able to roam in the confines of a shed.
Organic eggs: Eggs produced using organic methods. Organic farming does not involve the use of artificial chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers, or genetically modified organisms. Chickens are raised on organic feed.
Specialty eggs: Eggs produced by avian species other than chickens, such as ducks and quails.
https://www.ibisworld.com.au/media/2014/10/16/consumers-shell-free-range-eggs/

Equipment

LE 2 - Worksheet 1 LE 2 - Worksheet 2 LE 2 - Worksheet 3







Lesson Steps

  1. Revise the terms ethical and sustainable. Establish that consumers expect a range of choice when purchasing eggs by watching the video ‘Consumers have their say’ 1min 35
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa5FDnQADcs
  2. Worksheet 1 – discuss the types of Farming systems used to produce eggs in Australia. Watch the videos
    https://www.australianeggs.org.au/learn-about-egg-farming/ Record notes using the Plus, Minus, Interesting chart to identify the advantages, disadvantages and interesting aspects of the way eggs are produced in both cage and free-range systems. Students to conclude which eggs they prefer to purchase and give reasons. Use the human continuum to share student opinion on the topic.
  3. Worksheet 2 – Discuss the graphic ‘Making sense of eggs’. Watch the video ‘Cage or free range? Don't put too much stress on housing system’ 4min 42
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsJzU3-q0VM
    Students to re-evaluate their conclusion and decide which eggs they prefer to purchase and give reasons.
  4. Worksheet 3 – Revise the factors (social, ethical and sustainability) nutrition, aesthetics, cost, time, ingredients, equipment and tools, techniques and processes), that influence the design of healthy food products by completing the worksheet.

Supporting Resources
‘Consumers have their say’ 1min 35
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa5FDnQADcs Australian Eggs
Published on Apr 10, 2012

‘Meet Australian free range egg farmer, Rachel Wilson’ (5min29).
‘Meet Australian barn egg farmer, Rob Peffer’ (5min24).
‘Meet Australian cage egg farmer, Gill Burke’ (5min43).
https://www.australianeggs.org.au/learn-about-egg-farming/

Cage or free range? Don't put too much stress on housing system 4min 42
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YCHqU2MWTxQ
Australian Eggs
Published on Aug 24, 2016

Cage or Free range 3min 36
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsJzU3-q0VM
Australian Eggs
Published on Oct 22, 2012

Handout - Eggsplainer - cracking the new free range rules
https://www.australianeggs.org.au/assets/australian-eggs/Uploads/Free-range-eggsplainer.pdf
Human continuum
http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104014/chapters/Human-Continuum.aspx

back to top

Learning Experience 3

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will allow students to evaluate the opportunity for food specialisation using eggs as solution to encourage healthy eating for specific consumer markets, e.g. adolescents, elderly, health and environmentally conscious, health and fitness conscious, time poor, by examining the nutritional value of eggs.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • Examine in detail the nutritional value of eggs
  • Identify nutrition-poor consumer markets; e.g. adolescents, elderly, obese, fitness where eggs could provide a solution.

Teacher Background

Healthy eating is essential regardless of how old you are and what else you do. It helps reduce the risk of lifestyle-related health conditions and boosts energy levels, helping you get the most out of each day. While diet trends come and go, the basics of healthy eating remain constant. To meet daily nutrient requirements, it’s important to include a variety of foods from the key food groups. You should also be active, take time out to enjoy life and ensure you get enough sleep.
Eggs are an easy, low cost, protein and nutrient rich meal for breakfast, lunch or dinner to help Australians achieve a quality diet. Unlike many of the latest food fads, eggs are relatively inexpensive and quick to cook – making them a valuable inclusion in a healthy, well-balanced diet.
Eggs are also a convenient way for adolescents, pregnant women, athletes, the elderly and others with restricted diets or increased nutrient requirements to top up their intake.
Eggs are a great source of high quality protein. Egg white is the standard against which all other proteins are measured. Eggs also contain 11 essential vitamins and minerals. They contain all the B group vitamins, as well as being one of the few dietary sources of vitamin D. The only vitamin not in an egg is C.
Video
CSIRO report on Eggs and Diet Quality 1min.46
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6usUlZ7KRQg
Eggs are low in saturated fat and, while they do contain cholesterol, research has shown they can be eaten every day without any meaningful impact on cholesterol levels. Professor Manny Noakes, BSc, Dip Nut & Diet, PhD, Research Director for Nutrition and Health at CSIRO, believes research supports that eggs are okay every day.
“We need to encourage Australians to add more natural wholefoods to their diets for overall better health. Our research showed that higher egg consumption was associated with a higher diet quality score. Eggs are an extremely nutritious wholefood - a great choice for all in a healthy and balanced daily diet.”
Video
If You Eat 2 Eggs at Breakfast for a Month, This is What Happens to Your Body Watch to 1min08 only
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ritoDg1-s14

WHAT’S IN AN EGG?
The humble egg is a superfood with 11 different vitamins and nutrients packed into only 300 kilojoules. Eggs are a perfect protein source because they contain all the essential amino acids our bodies need in the right amounts. They’re a natural source of key nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A, E and B12, antioxidants and choline. The nutrients found in an egg are distributed evenly between the yolk and the white, which is why it is recommended eating the whole egg for a nutritious start to the day.
Every time you crack open an egg you’re receiving the goodness of:

  • Protein: Athletes often consume eggs before training because they’re a good source of high-quality protein. Protein is used by the body for growth and repair, helping in the formation of muscles, hair, nails, skin and organs.
  • Vitamin D: Egg yolks are one of the few foods that naturally contain vitamin D, making it a convenient way to up your intake without having to sit out in the sun. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones and muscles, as well as overall health.
  • Vitamins A, E and B12: Eggs contain a number of vitamins including A, E and B12. Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy skin and teeth, while also promoting good vision. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that helps protect body tissue from disease. Vitamin B12 is essential for brain and nervous system function, also aiding proper blood formation.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: These are essential in protecting against heart disease, inflammatory disease and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. They help keep your eyes healthy and also play a major role in infant development.
  • Antioxidants: Eggs are high in several natural antioxidants including Lutein and Zeaxanthin, which protect your eyes and maintain their health. They are thought to slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of legal blindness in Australia. Egg whites also contain selenium, which protects your immune system.
  • Choline: Choline is used by the body for metabolic processes such as liver function, normal brain development, nerve function and muscle movement. It’s particularly important during pregnancy to support foetal brain development.
  • Iron: It’s estimated that up to five per cent of Australians are iron deficient. Iron is required to produce haemoglobin, which carries oxygen through the blood. Eggs are an easy way to help hit your recommended iron intake levels.

BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF EGGS
Eggs are known as the ‘king’ of the proteins as they have a High Biological Value. A high biological value means a protein has the essential amino acids in a proportion similar to what is needed by humans. When one or more essential amino acids are insufficient, the protein is said to have a low biological value. BV refers to how well and how quickly your body can use the protein consumed.
Eggs are said to have the highest biological value; therefore ensuring a quality source of protein for all stages of the life cycle, particularly growing adolescents. Egg white protein is considered to have one of the best amino acids profiles for human nutrition.


Source: http://www.food-info.net/uk/protein/bv.htm

HOW MANY TO EAT
You can eat up to 6 – 7 eggs each week; that’s 1 egg per day or 2-3 egg filled meals a week.

TIPS FOR EATING EGGS Eggs are quick and easy to cook with in the kitchen and can be used in everything from baking, as a setting agent, as garnish for salads, or as a meal. The most popular egg dish in Australia is fried eggs on toast! It’s hard to think of a more versatile ingredient in the kitchen than eggs. They can be the star of the show (omelette, quiche), be the supporting actor to other ingredients (Pad Thai, spaghetti carbonara), or be the hidden hero by making a cake rise or giving a soufflé its fluff.

  • The healthiest ways to cook eggs are to boil, poach or scrambled
  • What you eat with your eggs is important
  • - Eat with 1 – 2 serves of vegetables; e.g. baby spinach leaves, asparagus, tomatoes or mushrooms
    - Eggs make great lunch box fillers for children and are portable when hard-boiled
    - Add a chopped up boiled egg to the top of a salad
    - Make a 3egg omelette with capsicum, spinach and mushroom
    - Include frittata or quiche in your weekly menu

https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/healthy-eating/food-and-nutrition/protein-foods/eggs

CONSUMER MARKETS Different stages of the life cycle require different quantities and types of food to maintain health. However, all stages require high quality protein foods to maintain growth and repair the body. Eggs are a recommended source.

Younger Population Younger generations have experienced a shift in food access, with far more fast food options and supermarkets available, paving the way for high consumption of processed foods and a rise in diet-related health diseases. These trends will ultimately create endemic diet-related diseases to 2050 such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes, presenting a health and fiscal burden to the economy to 2050, unless young people are aware of their responsibility to consume foods that promote health. Eggs are a food that promotes health for young people.

Ageing Population The percentage of the population over 85 has doubled from 0.9 per cent in 1990 to 1.8 per cent in 2010 and is expected to rise to between 4 and 5.5 per cent by 2056. Those over the age of 75 are most at risk of malnutrition and dietary related disease. Eggs are an easy to cook, digestible protein for the elderly. http://www.futuredirections.org.au/publication/consumption-patterns-and-food-demand-in-australia-to-2050/

Health conscious The modern, health conscious Australian consumer has a strong demand for natural, organic, locally sourced food products. The diet of many Australians has seen a change in preference to food that is healthy and nutritious. There is a growing concern for chemicals in food products. All eggs are grown in Australia and are available locally.

Health and fitness
Most people associate protein and exercise with gym-junkies and mega protein shakes. But protein is essential for everyone – especially to get the best out of exercise routines. Exercise requires healthy muscles and protein in your diet is important for providing the building blocks (called amino acids) to repair, maintain and build muscle. If you enjoy plenty of activity, the protein you eat is available to repair, maintain and build muscle. You can help with muscle recovery by consuming a snack containing both protein and carbohydrate after exercise. This will help with muscle repair and glycogen replacement and can be as simple and inexpensive as an egg and lettuce sandwich. There is no need to buy expensive protein bars or shakes. Including protein in a meal can affect hormones that suppress your appetite and prolong your sense of fullness helping with appetite control. Along with a good quality carbohydrate this can mean feeling fuller for longer with a steady energy supply to work, rest and play.

Equipment

  • Print worksheets 1, 2 and 3
  • Set up Powerpoint presentation
  • Download VR experiences:
  • If You Eat 2 Eggs at Breakfast for a Month, This is What Happens to Your Body Watch to 1min08 only
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ritoDg1-s14
LE 3 - Worksheet 1 LE 3 - Worksheet 2 LE 3 - Worksheet 2 Info LE 3 - Worksheet 3









Lesson Steps

  1. Video – ‘If You Eat 2 Eggs at Breakfast for a Month, This is What Happens to Your Body’ Watch to 1min08 only
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ritoDg1-s14
  2. Worksheet 1 – Students complete purposeful annotation/ close reading activity on the importance of Healthy eating and protein
  3. Worksheet 2 – use the Powerpoint presentation to complete the graphic organiser - What’s in an egg?
  4. Brainstorm responses to the question ‘Given that eggs are nutritious, particularly high in protein, which nutrition-poor consumer groups could eggs provide a solution?’ Students write responses on whiteboard and verbalise their reasons to the class. Responses should include children, adolescents, adults, elderly, pregnant, fitness, health conscious.
  5. Worksheet 3 - Webquest – research websites to produce a list of simple recipes for breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks that students could produce using eggs. Report findings to the class.
  6. Evaluate the opportunities for food specialisation using eggs as a solution for specific consumer markets.

Supporting Resources

Videos:
If You Eat 2 Eggs at Breakfast for a Month, This is What Happens to Your Body Watch to 3min 05 but watch1min08 only https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ritoDg1-s14
Natural Ways, Published on Apr 28, 2017

CSIRO report on Eggs and Diet Quality 1min.46 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6usUlZ7KRQg
AustEggCorp, Published on Oct 13, 2016
Powerpoint presentation: Nutritional value of eggs

Websites:
How to use a graphic organiser
http://www.inspiration.com/visual-learning/graphic-organizers

Creating webquests
http://webquest.org/sdsu/templates/lesson-template1.htm

Chicken egg
http://www.poultryhub.org/physiology/the-avian-egg/

back to top

 

Learning Experience 4

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will provide students with knowledge and understanding to identify and manage risks in the development of design projects. This may include working safely, responsibly, cooperatively and ethically on projects, assessing uncertainty and risk in relation to long-term health and environmental impacts.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • Gain knowledge in relation to working safely with eggs.
  • Gain knowledge of WHS guidelines when working in a food production environment by identifying risks; e.g. knife handling, electricity, heat and water.
  • Understand the need for working responsibly, co-operatively and ethically on design projects.
  • Assess uncertainty and risk in relation to long-term health of consuming eggs on a regular basis

Teacher Background

WORKING SAFELY WITH EGGS
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO STORE EGGS?
The best way to keep eggs is to store them in their original carton in the refrigerator as soon as possible after purchase. Cartons reduce water loss and protect flavours from other foods being absorbed into the eggs. Storing eggs loose, or in specially designed sections of the refrigerator is not recommended as this also exposes eggs to a greater risk of damage.

HOW LONG DO EGGS LAST?
Fresh eggs can be kept refrigerated in their carton for up to 6 weeks, there is a use by date displayed on the carton as well. It is best to put eggs in the fridge as soon as you get them home.

HOW CAN I TELL IF AN EGG IS STILL FRESH?
A quick and fun test for egg freshness is to pop them in a basin of water. Fresh eggs will stay at the bottom of the bowl while older eggs float because of the large air cell that forms in its base.

I’VE HAD A CARTON OF EGGS IN MY FRIDGE FOR A FEW WEEKS. CAN I STILL USE THEM?
Yes. Older eggs are ideal for baking cakes, quiches and frittatas. They are also perfect for hard-boiling, scrambling, and making omelettes. When hard-boiling it’s actually better to use eggs that are a few days old because the white is less likely to stick to the shell. Fresher eggs are better for poaching and frying because they hold their shape.

WHAT ARE SOME FOOD SAFETY TIPS WHEN IT COMES TO STORING EGGS?
Like all perishable foods, eggs need to be handled carefully. Follow these suggestions to ensure that you handle and prepare eggs properly:

  • Always buy shell eggs that are clean and keep them refrigerated
  • When storing eggs in the refrigerator, keep them in the carton away from other strongly flavoured / smelling foods
  • For all perishable foods allow no more than two hours at room temperature for preparation and serving
  • Eggs should be cooked until the white is completely firm and the yolk begins to thicken
  • For best quality, use fresh eggs within the 'Best Before' date as stated on the carton.
  • Avoid cross-contamination by washing hands, cookware, and counter-tops with hot, soapy water after preparing raw animal products, including eggs.
https://www.australianeggs.org.au/facts-and-tips/storing-eggs/#item-57

WHS GUIDELINES WHEN WORKING IN A FOOD PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT
Watch video
Kitchen and Food Safety 3min
Understanding of how to use a Strengths and Weaknesses table to make decisions.

Equipment

LE 4 - Worksheet 1 LE 4 - Worksheet 2





Lesson Steps

  1. Students will complete the cloze activity on Food Safety when using eggs – Worksheet 1.
  2. Discuss WHS guidelines for working in a food production environment by students
    • accessing an online quiz; e.g. https://www.highspeedtraining.co.uk/hub/health-safety-kitchen-quiz/ or https://www.quiz.biz/quizz-131171.html
    • Discuss with students about Food safety and hygiene and watch video on Kitchen and Food Safety
    • Kitchen and Food Safety 3min
  3. Teacher to lead discussion on guidelines for working responsibly, co-operatively and ethically on design projects.
  4. Small group work – from the recipes selected in the previous lesson, choose one to produce. Worksheet 2 - Use a Strengths and Weaknesses table to assess risk in relation to long-term health of consuming this recipe on a regular basis. Students will need access to recipes chosen in precious lesson and may need to refer to videos showing how to produce food item.
  5. Videos
    How to make
    https://www.australianeggs.org.au/facts-and-tips/how-to-videos/

Supporting Resources

Australian Eggs Facts and Tips https://www.australianeggs.org.au/facts-and-tips/storing-eggs/#item-57

Resources

back to top

Learning Experience 5

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will provide students with knowledge and understanding to analyse how characteristics and properties of food determine preparation techniques and presentation when designing solutions for healthy eating.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • Gain knowledge in relation to the effect of cooking on the nutritional value of eggs
  • Understand the functional properties of eggs
  • Analyse how these characteristics impact on preparation and presentation techniques.

Teacher Background

Does the Nutritional Value of Eggs Depend on the Way You Cook Them?
https://www.livestrong.com/article/424320-is-the-nutritional-value-of-eggs-different-depending-on-which-way-you-cook-them/

Eggs contain certain amounts of constituent nutrients, which remain virtually the same regardless of how you cook them. Whether boiled, poached or scrambled without added ingredients, eggs have essentially the same nutritional value. Keep in mind, however, that adding ingredients to eggs during preparation or frying them in fat affects the nutrient profile of the final dish.

Proteins and Fats
Eggs contain high concentrations of protein and fats along with a small amount of carbohydrates. A raw or cooked large egg contains approximately 6.3 g of protein. Roughly 60 percent of the protein in an egg is contained in the white. This contrasts with the fat content, 90 percent of which is located in the egg yolk. A large egg contains approximately 5 g of fat, including approximately 1.6 g of saturated fat and 210 mg of cholesterol. The amount of saturated fat and cholesterol in eggs may raise an eyebrow, especially if you have heart disease or risk factors for the condition, such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes or abnormal blood fat levels. If this is a concern, try substituting egg whites for whole eggs and cook them without added fat. Depending on your blood fat levels, you may want to eat a whole egg occasionally to obtain the nutrients concentrated in the yolk.

Vitamins and Minerals
Regardless of how you cook them, eggs provide you with a diverse array of vitamins and minerals. Most of the vitamins and minerals in eggs are concentrated in the yolk, including vitamins A, D, E, B-6 and B-12, folate, thiamine, calcium, iron, zinc and selenium. Egg whites contains the majority of the potassium and magnesium in eggs. Phosphorus is found in high concentrations in both the white and yolk of an egg.

Cooking and Egg Protein
Cooking eggs changes the structure of their constituent proteins. Proteins in raw eggs are tightly packed together and held in place by weak chemical bonds. When you heat egg proteins during cooking, some of these bonds break and the proteins strands begin to separate from one another. This makes the egg proteins more easily digestible and absorbable. Although the protein content is the same in raw and cooked eggs, your body is better able to utilize the protein from a cooked egg compared to a raw egg. In addition to providing a nutritional advantage, cooking eggs is important for safety reasons. Eggs that appear normal may carry bacteria that can cause food poisoning; cooking destroys these bacteria. To reduce your risk of egg-borne food poisoning, always cook eggs thoroughly before eating them.

Egg Dishes
The nutritional value eggs cooked without added fat and other ingredients is much different from that of many popular egg dishes. For example, two large, soft-boiled eggs contain approximately 0.65 kilojoules, 12.5 g of protein and 10.6 g of total fat. Frying these eggs in a tablespoon of butter adds approximately 0.42 kilojoules and 11.5 g of fat. A small slice of cheese quiche contains nearly 2.4 kilojoules, 16.7 g of protein and an astonishing 44 g of fat. Although your cooking method does not significantly affect the nutritional content of eggs per se, what you mix with eggs during preparation most certainly can!

The effects of cooking on nutrition
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/yawya/science-and-nutrition/The%20effects%20of%20cooking%20on%20nutrition.html Nutrient loss is a consequence of nearly every cooking process. Exposure to heat, light or oxygen will alter the nutrients found in food, and methods that involve water often reduce the amounts of nutrients as these get ‘washed out’ and left behind. However, cooking foods also has its advantages, including a reduction of the number of possible malignant microbes, an increase in digestibility and the increased availability of certain phytonutrients.

Heating
Heating affects mostly the vitamin and fat content of foods, as well as the texture that they present. On the other hand, cooking processes that involve heating also make certain nutrients more available for the body to use. For example, the amount of total carotenoids content in carrots and other vegetable-based dishes is higher in boiled versions.

Freezing
When foods with high amounts of water (such as vegetables) are frozen, the water forms crystals which may puncture the cell wall. This will cause the shape of the cell to change and give a different ‘look’ to the food. In the food industry, processes involving a change of temperature (usually to increase shelf life) are carried out using extreme temperatures to avoid the formation of crystals and alterations in the structure of the products.

Loss of water
Certain nutrients, particularly sodium, potassium and calcium, may be lost when cooking in water. This process is called leaching; nutrients lost during leaching are usually discarded with the cooking waters. To reduce the loss, it is advisable to cook with as little water as possible (steaming is even better) to reduce the surface contact of the foods (think big chunks of food, not tiny diced cubes), and to use the cooking water whenever possible (as in soups).

Light and oxygen
When exposed to the atmosphere, foods lose some of their nutrients. This affects most greatly the vitamin C content and it may be reduced by exposing fresh or recently cooked foods as little as possible to light and oxygen before consumption.

Eating raw food
Due to all these alterations in the composition of our foods as a result of cooking and processing, some health-conscious people have taken to consuming raw foods. While in terms of nutrient loss this might sound like a good and logical idea, it has its drawbacks. Cooking may also make our foods safer by killing microbes or making it difficult for them to grow and multiply (as in salted meats, which have a longer life due to the lack of water available for bacteria to grow).

The exact amount of nutrients lost during cooking will vary depending on the characteristics of the foods and the processes followed. As long as they are safe to eat, try consuming your foods raw as often as possible or cook them in a way that will reduce the nutrient loss to a minimum.

Eggs are a versatile food and ingredient. There are significant differences in the physical, chemical and functional properties of the egg yolk and the eggwhite, and both parts can be used in a variety of ways in food preparation and processing.

Powerpoint
Functional properties of eggs
https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/eggs-6106479

Functional properties of eggs in food preparation and processing https://vandermarkj.wikispaces.com/Properties+of+eggs

There are significant differences in the physical and chemical properties of the yolk and the white of eggs. As well as the nutrient contribution, eggs as a whole or in part are used for many purposes in food preparation. The functions of the natural components in eggs in food preparation are thickening, foaming qualities, emulsification and, less importantly, binding, colouring and flavouring.

Thickening
The thickening properties of eggs are used in many recipes. The proteins present in eggs coagulate when heat is applied. The different types of proteins present in eggs mean that coagulation occurs over a range of temperatures. The coagulation of eggs is necessary for the successful processing of eggs in custards, quiches, pie fillings, cooked sauces and cooked salad dressings.

Foaming qualities (aeration)
Egg yolk and eggwhite can be beaten to a foam and form the body or texture of many food products, such as sponge-type cakes, soufflés, omelettes and meringues. The protein (albumen) aerates by trapping air bubbles in the beaten eggwhite. The air expands when heat is applied and stretches until finally the albumen coagulates and sets the product. The stability of foam is influenced by the presence of natural components such as fats, acids, sugars and water.

Emulsification
Egg yolk or a whole egg is an efficient emulsifier. It allows the mixing of two or more liquids that do not normally mix, such as oil and water, to form a stable mixture. In mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce, an egg yolk acting as an emulsifier allows the mixing of vinegar and oil into a smooth-textured mixture. Eggs also act as emulsifiers in cake mixtures and batters where fat is present.

Binding
The protein (albumen) in eggs is useful in holding ingredients together for foods such as hamburgers, meatballs, and fish patties.

Colouring and flavouring
The complex chemical components of an egg add distinctive flavouring to food, such as omelettes. Egg yolk colour varies but, where egg yolk is used in food preparation, it contributes to the colour of the end product, such as sponge cake or egg custard.

Food Properties http://9foodies.weebly.com/food-properties.html
Functional Property: Coagulation, Denaturation and Syneresis
Definition/Explanation of property:
Two important processes are denaturation and coagulation. The denature means to change properties; once a protein has denatured, it cannot return to its original form. An example of this is the application of heat to egg. the second step of denaturation is coagulation, whereby protein thickens and changes into solid mass. The process of denaturation and coagulation is affected by the application of acid, alkalis, sugar and salt.
Syneresis occurs when the coagulation process continues due to heating. This is seen when the protein squeezes out the liquid in the product, for example curdling in custards, the separation of liquid from meat when it is cooked to well done and the weeping of liquid from meringue on top of a lemon meringue pie.
Examples of practical applications
Raw eggs to cooked (scrambled, boiled)

  • Production of Cheese
  • Baked/fried fish
  • Creme Caramel
  • Meringue (protein denatured during beating; heat causes coagulation)
Factors Affecting Functional Property
High Temperature - the higher the temperature, the faster coagulation will occur.
Overheating causes a gel to firm.
  • Agitation (excessive mechanical action may cause over coagulation);
  • The action of enzymes e.g. rennin causing milk to coagulate;
  • A change in pH; and
  • The addition of salt - begins the process of denaturation.

Functional Property: Aeration
Definition/Explanation of property: Foams are the process of whipping or beating air into a liquid (generally lipids.) Foams are a type of aeration. In this process, fat in the product becomes partially solidified and protein partially denatured. They are an extremely efficient way to incorporate air. They rely on the mechanicaluse of instruments to create spaces for oxygen to enter although excessive beating can cause a structural breakdown of the product.

Examples of practical applications

  • Pavlovas
  • Sponges
  • Meringues
  • Soufflés
  • Mousses
  • Omelette

Factors Affecting Functional Property
Factors affecting the rate and effectiveness of foaming include:
The product being beaten;

  • The length of beating time;
  • The severity of the beating;
  • The use of additives; e.g. gelatine or sugar;
  • The age of the product (especially in products such as cream);
  • The temperature of the product.

Key Summary:

Point 1
Does the Nutritional Value of Eggs depend on the way you cook them?
Eggs contain certain amounts of constituent nutrients, which remain virtually the same regardless of how you cook them. Whether boiled, poached or scrambled without added ingredients, eggs have essentially the same nutritional value.

Point 2
Egg Dishes
The nutritional value eggs cooked without added fat and other ingredients is much different from that of many popular egg dishes. For example, two large, soft-boiled eggs contain approximately 0.65 kilojoules, 12.5 g of protein and 10.6 g of total fat. Frying these eggs in a tablespoon of butter adds approximately 0.42 kilojoules and 11.5 g of fat. A small slice of cheese quiche contains nearly 2.4 kilojoules, 16.7 g of protein and an astonishing 44 g of fat. Although your cooking method does not significantly affect the nutritional content of eggs per se, what you mix with eggs during preparation most certainly can!

Point 3
The effects of cooking on nutrition
Nutrient loss is a consequence of nearly every cooking process. Exposure to heat, light or oxygen will alter the nutrients found in food, and methods that involve water often reduce the amounts of nutrients. However, cooking foods also has its advantages, including a reduction of the number of possible malignant microbes, an increase in digestibility and the increased availability of certain phytonutrients.

Point 4
Functional properties of eggs
Eggs as a whole or in part are used for many purposes in food preparation. The functions of the natural components in eggs in food preparation are thickening, foaming qualities, emulsification and, less importantly, binding, colouring and flavouring.

Powerpoint
Functional properties of eggs
https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/eggs-6106479

Point 5
Food Properties – Coagulation and Denaturation
Two important processes are denaturation and coagulation. The denature means to change properties; once a protein has denatured, it cannot return to its original form; e.g. the application of heat to egg. The second step of denaturation is coagulation, whereby protein thickens and changes into solid mass. The process of denaturation and coagulation is affected by the application of acid, alkalis, sugar and salt.

Equipment

  • Print worksheets 1 and 2
  • Set up for use of Powerpoint and video links
  • Optional: organise ingredients and equipment for demonstration
LE 5 - Worksheet 1 LE 5 - Worksheet 2 PowerPoint






Lesson Steps

  1. Worksheet 1 - Students will complete the close reading to gain knowledge on the effect of cooking on the nutritional value of eggs.
  2. Powerpoint – discuss the functional properties of eggs with students.
  3. Worksheet 2 – Using the worksheet and video links, observe the functional properties of eggs.
  4. Optional: Teacher demonstration or student practical to understand the functional properties of eggs and how these characteristics impact on preparation and presentation techniques.

Supporting Resources

Videos:
The Science behind boiling an egg (1min22)
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=the+science+of+cooking+eggs&&view=detail&mid=6A3B69EC1A7C515876FB6A3B69EC1A7C515876FB&&FORM=VRDGAR
Whipping egg whites to perfect peaks (3min51)
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=the+science+of+cooking+pavlova&&view=detail&mid=CF833966FF2A5D555F8CCF833966FF2A5D555F8C&&FORM=VRDGAR
Jamie Oliver Hollandaise Sauce (2min34)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Hq18uWPFVMhttps://vandermarkj.wikispaces.com/Properties+of+eggs
Video: Science: The Magi Science: The Magic of Meringue—Why Timing Matters When Whipping Egg Whites and Sugarc of Meringue—Why Timing Matters When Whipping Egg Whites and Sugar (2min39)
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=egg+foam+pavlova&&view=detail&mid=B12E15C6DDD954B6C5A1B12E15C6DDD954B6C5A1&&FORM=VRDGAR
Websites:
Does the nutritional value of eggs depend on the way you cook them?
https://www.livestrong.com/article/424320-is-the-nutritional-value-of-eggs-different-depending-on-which-way-you-cook-them/
The effects of cooking on nutrition
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/yawya/science-and-nutrition/The%20effects%20of%20cooking%20on%20nutrition.html
Eggs
https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/eggs-6106479
Food Properties
http://9foodies.weebly.com/food-properties.html

back to top

Learning Experience 6

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will allow students to develop technical production skills and safe working practices to produce solutions for a design challenge, while working safely and cooperatively.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • Produce healthy lunch snacks using egg as a main ingredient
  • Evaluate the suitability of each to provide a solution for the design challenge.

Teacher Background

Teachers must meet the minimum qualifications for supervisors; e.g. an adult with competence (knowledge and skills) in medium-risk cooking and food hygiene procedures; the use of medium-risk equipment; and maintaining a safe kitchen in a school setting as per their employing authority such as
http://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/carmg/pdf/maintaining-safe-kitchen.pdf

Equipment

LE 6 - Worksheet 1 LE 6 - Worksheet 2 PowerPoint






  • Print worksheet 1
  • Print worksheet 2
  • Kitchen with adequate space to ensure that safety rules and procedures can be followed
  • Work stations that are the appropriate height
  • Sufficient light and ventilation
  • Level floor surfaces with non-slip coverings; no damage or cracks which can pose potential hygiene risks; and no tripping hazards.
  • Work areas that have easy access to exits in case evacuation is required because of fire and/or gas leakage.
  • Appropriate facilities available on site to enable a satisfactory standard of hygiene (including hand washing facilities, laundry and garbage disposal).
  • Washing-up facilities (including adequate supply of hot water and cleaning agents).
  • Adequate facilities for food storage (cold and dry) to ensure there is no risk of food contamination.
  • Adequate and easily accessible power outlets.
  • Appropriate safety aids for safe handling, lifting and carrying.
  • Electrical cords that are inspected regularly for damage and stored in such a way to prevent curling and stress on wires.
  • Preparation surfaces on benches or tables have been cleaned and sanitised with commercial cleaning agents.
  • Appropriate personal protective equipment (including covered, non-porous footwear; clean apron; and gloves).
  • Ready access to appropriate safety equipment (including fire extinguishers and fire blankets).
  • Clean up equipment (including a broom, dustpan, breakages bin, and spill kit).
  • Equipment that is clean, in good condition and regularly maintained.

Lesson Steps

  1. Students will follow school’s procedure for entering kitchen and setting up (Worksheet 1).
  2. In a small group, produce and present the snacks using a production plan.
  3. Taste the food produced and complete a sensory evaluation (Worksheet 2).
  4. Predict the impact of the food preparation technique on the nutritive value of the food product.
  5. Clean the production area.

Supporting Resources

Videos:
How to make
https://www.australianeggs.org.au/facts-and-tips/how-to-videos/

back to top

Learning Experience 7

Lesson Overview

This learning experience will allow students to create a designed solution that considers social, ethical and sustainable factors and involves

  • investigating and defining
  • generating and designing
  • producing and implementing
  • evaluating
  • collaborating and managing.

Lesson Outcomes

Students will:

  • work individually and collaboratively to complete the Assessment Task Project - design, produce and evaluate healthy lunch snack options that use eggs as a main ingredient for an adolescent with some health issues.

Teacher Background

Equipment

  • Print Assessment Task
  • Notes from previous lessons
  • Access to internet

Lesson Steps

  1. Revise with students the steps required to complete the project by referring to the Assessment Task.
  2. Students to work individually and collaboratively to complete the task

Supporting Resources

Videos: https://www.australianeggs.org.au/facts-and-tips/how-to-videos/
back to top